**PH-504 Condensed Matter Physics-II (Pre-requisite PH-403)**

- Electron levels in a periodic potential: weak periodic potential, tight-binding method, alternative band-structure calculations.
- The semi-classical model of electron dynamics and conduction in metals, Fermi surface and its measurement, band structure of selected metals.
- Dielectric properties of insulators, response to an alternating field.
- Homogeneous and inhomogeneous semiconductors, doping.
- Occurrence of superconductivity, destruction of superconductivity by magnetic fields, Meissner effect, microwave and infrared properties. London equation, BCS ground state, flux quantization, duration of persistent currents. Type-II superconductors, vortices, Josephson superconductor tunneling, DC and AC Josephson effect, macroscopic quantum interferometry, high temperature superconductors.
- Diamagnetism and paramagnetism: Langevin equation, quantum theory of mononuclear system, rare earth ions, Hund’s rules, iron group atoms, crystal field splittings, isentropic demagnetization, nuclear demagnetization.
- Ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism: Curie point, exchange integrals, saturation magnetism at absolute zero, magnons, neutron magnetic scattering. Ferrimagnetism, Curie temperature and susceptibility below the Neel temperature, antiferromagnetic magnons.
- Nanophysics: imaging techniques including electron, optical, scanning, atomic force microscopy.

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**Recommended texts:**

*Introduction to Solid State Physics*, by Charles Kittel, publisher: Wiley 8th Edition (2004).*Solid State Physics*, by Neil W. Ashcroft, N. David Mermin, publisher: Brooks Cole, 1st Edition (1976).*Elementary Solid State Physics*, by M. Ali Omar, publisher: Addison Wesley (1994).*Solid**State**Physics, by H. Ibach and H. Luth,*publisher: Springer; 3rd edition (2003).*Quantum Theory of Solids*by E.O’Reilly. Taylor and Francis.(2002)