PH-503 Lasers and Quantum Optics

  1. Review of quantum mechanics, Dirac’s notation, Pauli spin matrices, electromagnetic waves and photons, wavelength and frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
  2. Spontaneous and stimulated emission, absorption. Maser principle, cavity, gain medium, population inversion, Boltzmann statistics, threshold condition.
  3. Three-level laser, properties of a laser beams, black-body radiation theory. Modes of a rectangular cavity, Raleigh-Jeans and Planck radiation formula.
  4. Semi-classical treatment of the interaction of radiation and matter. Radiative transition rates, Interaction Hamiltonian, dipole approximation, rotating-wave approximation, electric dipole moment, allowed and forbidden transitions, ratio of the electric-dipole transition probability to the magnetic dipole transition probability, transition cross-section, absorption and gain coefficients.
  5. Line-broadening mechanisms. Homogeneous broadening, collision broadening and natural broadening. Wiener-Kinchine and Parseval’s theorem. Inhomogeneous and Doppler broadening.
  6. Rate equation approach to Laser theory, stationary solution, time-dependent solution, Gain, loss and saturation parameters, lasing condition.
  7. Ray and wave propagation in optical media. Matrix formulation of Geometrical optics. Wave reflection and transmission at a dielectric interface. Diffraction optics in paraxial approximation.
  8. Passive optical resonators, plane-parallel (Fabry-Perot) resonator, concentric, confocal, generalized spherical and ring resonator. Eigen-modes and Eigen-values. Stability condition, unstable resonator, photon lifetime and cavity Q.
  9. Q-switching, electro-optical, and acousto-optic Q-switches, saturable absorber Q-switch.
  10. Theory of mode-locking, active and passive mode-locking.
  11. Laser excitation techniques, optical, electrical, and chemical pumping, laser pumping, excitation transfer, meta-stable states and lifetimes.
  12. Types of lasers, solid-state, dye and semiconductor lasers, gas, chemical, free electron, and X-ray lasers, laser applications.


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